The Vikings were sailors who came from Norway, Sweden & Denmark. They were the Norse people from southern Scandinavia (in present-day Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) who from the late 8th to late 11th centuries raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe and later settled there as farmers & traders. Vikings explored westward to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland.

Viking sailors didn’t have maps or a magnetic compass. They found their way across the ocean by observing the positions of the Sun and stars and the direction of the wind.

The male Vikings wore a fur hat, warm wool cloak fastened with a brooch, an over-shirt of undyed linen, baggy woolen trousers, and put a knife & purse on their belt while female Vikings wore linen headcloth, oval brooch, pinafore tunic, long under-dress, and leather shoes.

Norsemen - The Vikings

Norse Gods

These names of Norse gods are gonna surprise you. Most of us have heard these names in Hollywood movies & comics and have seen them as superhero gods in some of the movies. Here is some Norse gods’ list:

ODIN: The supreme deity of Norse mythology and the greatest among the Norse gods was Odin. He was the god of war; was said to gather up the warriors who had fallen in battle and carry them back to his hall, Valhalla.

Thor: Thor was Odin’s most widely-known son. He was the protector of humanity. Armed with his hammer Mjöllnir, the god of thunder defended Asgard (where the gods lived) against giants & dragons.

Loki: Thor’s companion, Loki was a mischievous and sometimes nasty creature who could shape-shift and can take up animalistic forms and made a lot of trouble for the other gods.

Freyr: He was one of the most respected gods for the Vanir clan. The god of fertility and controller of sunshine & rain. Freyr was responsible for making Viking crops grow.

Freyia: Freyia was one of the most sensual and passionate goddesses in Norse mythology. The twin of Freyr, Freyia was the goddess of love. She could turn herself into a bird by putting on a magic falcon skin.

Hel: Helheim was the goddess and ruler of the Norse underworld. She has pale skin and appears to be death-like. She nurtures and houses any who enters her realm.

The Viking hoard of gold

Timeline of The Vikings

  • 790s – Viking raids started in western Europe.
  • 841 – The Viking settlement founded at Dublin, Ireland.
  • 856-857 – Vikings sail up the Seine to sack Paris for the first time.
  • 860s – Swedish Vikings found Novgorod and Kiev in Russia & Ukraine.
  • 870 – Farmers from Norway found a settlement on Iceland.
  • 886 – Eastern England came under Danelaw (Danish rule).
  • 900 – Vikings raid along the Mediterranean coast.
  • 911 – Viking chief Rollo was granted land in France.
  • 941 – Russian & Ukrainian Vikings attacked Istanbul (Constantinople).
  • 986 – Erik the Red found a settlement on Greenland.
  • 1000 – Leaf Erikson explored the coast of Newfoundland.

Erik the Red was exiled from Iceland for murder. Three years later, he came back with the tales of land he called Greenland. He set off with 1000 volunteers to start a new colony.

In the year 1000, Leif Erikson sailed from Greenland and landed at a place he called Vinland. Archaeologists believe it was Newfoundland, making him the first European to reach America.

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